Saturday, September 7, 2013

Nutrition & Food Safety

Eating well is key to maintaining strength, energy, and a healthy immune system There are 6 essential nutrients HIV and many of its treatments can change your bodys metabolism.
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A Few Reasons Why Nutrition Is so Important

Good nutrition is important to all people—whether or not they are living with HIV. But some conditions related to HIV/AIDS and its treatment (including, wasting, diarrhea, and lipid abnormalities), mean that proper nutrition is really important to people with HIV. Eating well is key to maintaining strength, energy, and a healthy immune system. In addition, because HIV can lead to immune suppression, food safety and proper hygiene is a concern to prevent infections.
For more information, see the Department of Veterans Affair’s HIV/AIDS: Why is Nutrition Important?

Good Health Starts with a Healthy Diet

A healthy diet is essential to maintaining good health across your life span. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration defines a healthy diet as one that provides enough of each essential nutrient, contains a variety of foods from all of the basic food groups, provides adequate energy to maintain a healthy weight, and does not contain excess fat, sugar, salt or alcohol. There are six essential nutrients:
  • Protein builds muscles and a strong immune system.
  • Carbohydrates (including starches and sugars) give you energy.
  • Fat gives you extra energy.
  • Vitamins regulate body processes.
  • Minerals regulate body processes and also make up body tissues.
  • Water gives cells shape and acts as a medium in which body processes can occur.
For more information about healthy eating, see FDA’s Smart Nutrition 101: FAQs.
Before you make major changes in your diet, however, contact your primary care provider, or a registered dietician who specializes in HIV care, to get a better assessment of your nutritional needs.

The Connection Between HIV and Your Diet

HIV and many of its treatments can change your body’s metabolism—or the way your body processes nutrients and other substances (like body fat). Some of these metabolic changes can lead to lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and wasting syndrome, and can affect the way you look and feel.
In addition, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea are common conditions associated with HIV and its treatments. These side effects can keep you from eating or cause you to lose essential nutrients. They can also cause you to be dehydrated.
Because HIV progression is often slow, changes in your metabolism and physical appearance may be slow as well. That’s why it’s so important to pay attention to your diet and eat properly on a daily basis—it will help you in the long-run.
If you are experiencing metabolic changes, or vomiting and diarrhea, don’t be afraid or embarrassed to discuss these important issues with your healthcare provider. Your provider will need to know what’s happening with your body in order to decide the best way of supporting your nutritional needs. While some of these issues can’t be prevented or treated with dietary modifications alone, healthy eating and proper nutrition are critical parts of the process.
For more information, see USDA’s HIV/AIDS: Diet and Disease, or Project Inform’s Nutrition and Weight Maintenance Exit Disclaimer.

Safety First

Because HIV affects your immune system, you may be at greater risk for food-borne illness. So in addition to eating well, you need to eat safely. By following a few basic safety rules when you prepare and eat your meals, you can protect yourself from food-related illness:
  • Avoid eating raw eggs, meats, or seafood (including sushi and oysters/shellfish).
  • Wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly.
  • Use a separate cutting board for raw meats.
  • Wash hands, utensils, and cutting boards with soap and water after each use.
  • Water safety is extremely important, as water can carry a variety of parasites, bacteria, and viruses. To protect yourself against these infections, here are some helpful hints:
    • Do not drink water from lakes, ponds, rivers, or streams.
    • You may choose to use a store-bought water filter at home for your drinking water.
    • You can significantly reduce your risk of water-borne illness by using only boiled water for drinking and cooking.
    • When traveling abroad in areas where sanitation is poor or water safety is questionable, drink only bottled water and avoid ice or unpasteurized juices and drinks.
For more information, see EPA’s Guidance for people with severely weakened immune systems, or CDC’s HIV/AIDS: Safe Food and Water.

Dual Diagnosis Rehab

If you are struggling with drug addiction and bipolar disorder, Malibu Recovery Center dual diagnosis rehab is the answer your problem. We, at MRC specialize in dual diagnosis treatment and management for substance dependence and co-existing conditions.

Causes of bipolar disorder

Drug addiction and bipolar disorders have something in common. They are caused by many underlying factors. Bipolar disorder has many origins, to wit:
Genetics: Some children are born with genes that predispose them to bipolar disorder. If you have close relatives with this disorder, you also have an increased chance of having it. But, it does not necessarily mean that you will necessarily develop bipolar disorder because a family member has it. The possibility is only increased due to the genes that carry the traits.

Chemical imbalance: Studies showed that the primary cause of bipolar disorder is chemical imbalance in the body. This chemical disproportion affects the chemical or neurotransmitter called, norepinephrine. An increased level of norepinephrine causes mania or manic episodes. On the other hand, if the level of norepinephrine is decreased, the individual may also suffer from hypomania or deep depression.

Mood changes

• enthusiastic
• easily angered
• readily agitated
• Severe and unusual irritability
• Unusual hostility
• Unusually expansive or elevated or mood

Intensified Energy

• Increased activity
• Restlessness
• Sleeplessness
Speech defects
• Clang associations
• Incoherent speech
• Rapid speech

Weakened judgment

• Financial extravagance
• Improper behaviors
• Increased sexual impulses
• Misplaced humor
• Poor insight
• Recklessness
• Strange impulsiveness

Signs of hypomania

Symptoms of bipolar depression include:

• Changes in appetite
• Fatigue
• Feeling of hopelessness
• Sadness
• Lack of purpose
• Feelings of worthlessness
• Guilt
• Inability to concentrate
• Irritability
• Lack of ability to feel pleasure
• Memory problems
• Physical and mental lethargy
• Sleeping difficulty
• Suicidal thoughts

Mixed episodes

In some cases, an individual experiences a mixed episode of mania and hypomania. This is characterized by low mood and elevated energy. Some of its symptoms include:

• Anxiety
• Depression with agitation
• Distractibility
• Insomnia
• Irritability
• Racing thoughts

Effects of substance abuse on bipolar treatment
Drug addiction can cause difficulties to the diagnosis of bipolar disorder. It will entail through assessment and series of evaluation from qualified specialists to distinguish the symptoms. Conventional treatment will not answer your treatment needs. It is imperative to treat bipolar disorder along with drug addiction.

Malibu Recovery Center Dual Diagnosis Rehab special offers

Current clinical experience dictates that conventional drug addiction treatment cannot cause a dramatic change in people with dual diagnosis. A special type of treatment plan has to be implemented to make sure that the causes of bipolar disorder are addressed before a person can break free from addiction issues. At MRC dual diagnosis rehab, we offer specialized dual diagnosis treatment plan integrated in every step of our holistic program.

New nutrition actions

Kangaroo mother care photo
WHO Nutrition
Another edition of the WHO electronic Library of Evidence for Nutrition Actions has just been published. New nutrition intervention topics include: Kangaroo mother care to reduce morbidity and mortality in low-birth-weight infants, energy and protein supplementation during pregnancy, fortification of rice, and vitamin E supplementation for the prevention of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants.
Please continue to visit the eLENA site for more updates. The much anticipated new guidelines on iron and folic acid supplementation during pregnancy as well as guidelines on the management of severe acute malnutrition in children are expected to be released in the next edition of eLENA later this summer. A film on the eLENA project and its practical application in a number of settings is due to be announced in the coming weeks. The site is also currently being translated into Arabic, Chinese, French and Russian, while the Spanish version was launched in May 2012.
The Global database on the Implementation of Nutrition Action (GINA) is a complementary web-based tool and will be launched in November 2012. GINA will have a user-friendly interface with interactive maps, lists and fact sheets that show what is being done where, when, with whom, why and how to scale-up and improve nutrition. The database already consists of more than 900 policy titles and 2000 action data, which are currently being verified and updated by countries. Registered users can submit data to GINA and share information on nutrition activities. The submitted data are then verified with countries before being published.

HIV wasting syndrome

A person with HIV wasting syndrome loses at least 10 percent of her body weight and has at least 30 days of either diarrhea or weakness and fever. A person with HIV-associated wasting is considered to have AIDS. Severe loss of weight and muscle, or lean body mass, leads to muscle weakness and organ failure. Wasting is caused by many things:
  • Not wanting to eat (poor appetite)
  • Side effects from drugs, like a change in your sense of taste
  • No energy to shop and prepare food
  • Sore mouth
  • Problems swallowing
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Problems absorbing nutrients
  • Feeling full from only a small amount of food because your stomach doesn't empty right
  • Depression
Here are some tips to help you keep weight on and treat weight loss:

Healthy eating tip 8: Add calcium for strong bones

Add Calcium for Strong BonesCalcium is one of the key nutrients that your body needs in order to stay strong and healthy. It is an essential building block for lifelong bone health in both men and women, as well as many other important functions.
You and your bones will benefit from eating plenty of calcium-rich foods, limiting foods that deplete your body’s calcium stores, and getting your daily dose of magnesium and vitamins D and K—nutrients that help calcium do its job.
Recommended calcium levels are 1000 mg per day, 1200 mg if you are over 50 years old. Take a vitamin D and calcium supplement if you don’t get enough of these nutrients from your diet.

Good sources of calcium include:

  • Dairy: Dairy products are rich in calcium in a form that is easily digested and absorbed by the body. Sources include milk, yogurt, and cheese.
  • Vegetables and greens: Many vegetables, especially leafy green ones, are rich sources of calcium. Try turnip greens, mustard greens, collard greens, kale, romaine lettuce, celery, broccoli, fennel, cabbage, summer squash, green beans, Brussels sprouts, asparagus, and crimini mushrooms.
  • Beans: For another rich source of calcium, try black beans, pinto beans, kidney beans, white beans, black-eyed peas, or baked beans.